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General Risks and Complications of Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery like any surgical procedure, carries certain risks and potential complications that patients should be aware of before undergoing treatment. The specific risks can vary depending on the type of cosmetic surgery and an individual’s health.

Understanding Potential Risks and Complications From Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery in Melbourne VIC

During your consultation your Surgeon will outline the risks and possible complications in detail as part of your informed consent process. Our surgeons take every step possible to reduce risks, however surgical complications can still occur.

What Can you Do to Minimise the Potential Risks and Complications of Surgery?

  • Choose a Qualified Surgeon: Research and select a fully qualified experienced Surgeon who specialises in the specific type of surgery you are considering. Verify their credentials and reputation.
  • Discuss Your Medical History: Provide your Surgeon with a complete, honest and accurate medical history, including all medical conditions, medications, allergies, and previous surgeries.
  • Set Realistic Expectations: Discuss your goals and expectations with your surgeon to ensure they are realistic and achievable through the chosen procedure.
  • Informed Consent: Understand the surgical procedure, it’s potential risks and complications and the expected outcomes. Sign an informed consent form after discussing the procedure in detail with your surgeon.
  • Preoperative Evaluation: Complete all pre-operative tests and evaluations as recommended by your surgeon to identify and address any potential issues before surgery.
  • Lifestyle Choices: Prioritise a healthy lifestyle by maintaining a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and refraining from smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, as these factors can impact surgical outcomes.
  • Follow Preoperative Instructions: It is vital to adhere to all preoperative and postoperative instructions provided by your Surgeon.
  • Manage Chronic Health Conditions: If you have chronic health conditions like Diabetes or Hypertension, ensure they are well managed and controlled before surgery.
  • Discuss Medications and Supplements: Inform your surgeon about all medications and supplements you are taking as some may need to be adjusted or temporarily discontinued before the surgery.
  • Follow Postoperative Instructions: Carefully follow your surgeon’s postoperative instructions, including wound care, medication schedules, and activity restrictions.
  • Attend Follow-Up Appointments: Attend all scheduled follow up appointments with your Surgeon to monitor your progress and address any concerns or complications promptly.

By taking these precautions and closely following your Surgeon’s recommendations, you can significantly reduce the risks and complications associated with surgery and increase your chances of a successful outcome.

Possible Risks and Complications

Cosmetic Surgery like any surgical procedure, carries certain risks and potential complications that patients should be aware of before undergoing treatment. While the specific risks can vary depending on the type of cosmetic surgery and an individual’s health, here are some general risks and complications associated with cosmetic procedures:

Infection

Surgical site infections can occur, leading to redness, swelling, pain, and sometimes more severe complications. Maintaining proper wound care and following postoperative instructions is crucial in preventing infection.

Scarring

All surgical procedures result in some degree of scarring. The extent of scarring varies depending on factors like the type of surgery, surgical technique, and individual healing abilities.

Haematoma

A Haematoma is a collection of blood that can accumulate under the skin, causing swelling, bruising, and potential complications.

Seroma

A Seroma is a collection of serous fluid that can accumulate under the skin. It may require aspiration to remove the fluid and promote healing.

Swelling and Bruising

These are common side effects of cosmetic surgery and typically resolve over time. The duration and severity of swelling and bruising depend on the type of surgery and individual factors.

Pain and Discomfort

Postoperative pain and discomfort are common. Proper pain management is essential for a smoother recovery.

Allergic Reactions

Some individuals may have allergic reactions to anesthesia, sutures, or other materials used during surgery.

Anaesthesia Risks

Some of the risks associated with general anesthesia include:

  • Allergic Reactions: While rare, individuals can have allergic reactions to the drugs used in general anesthesia.
  • Breathing Difficulties: General anesthesia can sometimes lead to respiratory problems, including pneumonia or bronchitis.
  • Cardiovascular Issues: Anesthesia may cause changes in blood pressure, heart rhythm, or other cardiovascular problems, especially in individuals with pre-existing heart conditions.
  • Aspiration: There is a risk of inhaling stomach contents, which can lead to lung infections, particularly if you’ve recently eaten.
  • Nausea and Vomiting: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can affect some patients after waking from anesthesia.
  • Cognitive Issues: Older individuals may experience postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), which can result in confusion, memory problems, or difficulty concentrating.
  • Malignant Hyperthermia: This is a rare but life-threatening genetic condition triggered by specific anesthesia medications.
  • Tooth Damage: Anesthesia can cause dental damage, such as chipped or broken teeth, especially when a breathing tube is used.
  • Throat Soreness: A sore throat can occur, especially when a breathing tube is employed.
  • Nerve Damage: Although rare, nerve damage can result from improper positioning during surgery.
  • Postoperative Pain: General anesthesia may affect your body’s ability to sense pain for a few hours after surgery, which could lead to discomfort as it wears off.

It’s important to discuss any concerns or pre-existing medical conditions with your anesthesiologist before undergoing surgery. They will take these factors into account when planning and administering your anesthesia, minimizing the risks associated with general anesthesia.

Unsatisfactory Results

Cosmetic Surgery outcomes may not always meet a patient’s expectations and revisions or additional procedures may be required to achieve the desired results.

Numbness or Altered Sensation

Nerve damage can result in temporary or permanent numbness or altered sensation in the surgical area.

Asymmetry

Achieving perfect symmetry with cosmetic procedures can be challenging and there may be slight asymmetries in the final result.

Delayed Healing

Some individuals may experience delayed wound healing or complications related to scar tissue formation.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

While rare Deep Vein Thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (blood clots in the legs or lungs) are potential risks of any surgery. They can be life-threatening.

It is important for individuals considering cosmetic surgery to choose a qualified and experienced surgeon, carefully evaluate the potential risks and have realistic expectations. Discussing any concerns and questions with the Surgeon during the preoperative consultation is essential for informed decision making. Additionally, following the Surgeon’s postoperative care instructions is crucial for minimising the risks and promoting a successful recovery.

Do Your Research

  • Begin by reflecting on your reasons for considering cosmetic surgery and establish clear, realistic goals for the procedure.
  • Research the specific cosmetic procedure you’re interested in. Understand what it involves, the expected outcomes, potential risks, and the recovery process. Reliable sources include medical websites, books, and articles.
  • Seek fully qualified Plastic Surgeons with expertise in the procedure you desire.
    • Verify their credentials, years of experience, and reputation through professional organisations such as FRACS (Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, ASPS (Australian Society of Plastic Surgeons, ASAPS (Australasian Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons).
  • Request to see before and after photos for previous patients who underwent the same procedure.
  • Read patient testimonials and reviews online but be cautious of unverified sources. Consider seeking feedback from friends or acquaintances who have had similar procedures.
  • Schedule consultations with a few Surgeons to discuss your goals, ask questions and evaluate their recommendations and communication style.
  • Understand and sign an informed consent form that details the procedure, potential complications, and expected outcomes. Ask your surgeon to explain any terms or concepts you don’t understand.
  • Clearly understand the total cost of the procedure, which may include Surgeon’s fees, facility fees, anaesthesia, and postoperative care.
  • Learn about the expected recovery time, postoperative care instructions, and any restrictions on daily activities. Ensure you can accommodate this in your schedule.
  • Understand your responsibilities before and after surgery, including lifestyle changes, medication management and any necessary preoperative preparations.

Comprehensive research ensures that you are well informed and can confidently make decisions about cosmetic surgery. It also helps you establish trust and open communication with your surgeon, which is vital for a positive surgical experience.

Detailed Risks and Complications Of Specific Surgeries

Breast Surgeries

Breast Augmentation (Implant) – Specific Risks and Complications

Capsular Contracture: In breast augmentation, scar tissue (capsule) can form around the implant, causing it to feel firm or change in shape. This may require additional surgery.

Implant Rupture or Leakage: For patients with breast implants, there is a risk of implant rupture or leakage, especially with older implants. In such cases, the implant may need to be replaced.

Implant Displacement or Malposition: Implants can shift or become malpositioned, leading to an unnatural appearance. Revision surgery may be necessary.

Incompatibility with Mammography: Implants can make breast cancer detection through mammography more challenging. Special mammography techniques may be required.

Implant-Related Health Concerns: Although rare, some individuals may experience health concerns related to their implants, such as immune system reactions.

Implant Rippling or Wrinkling: In thinner individuals, especially with saline implants, rippling or wrinkling of the implants may be visible through the skin.

It’s important to note that most individuals who undergo breast implant surgery have successful outcomes with minimal complications. Your surgeon will discuss the specific risks and complications associated with your procedure during the consultation to help you make an informed decision.

Breast Lift with Implants is associated with a higher rate of corrective surgery than either breast augmentation or breast lift alone. For this reason, it is important that you choose the best possible Surgeon.

Fat Transfer Breast Augmentation – Specific Risks and Complications

Some of the common risks and complications associated with fat transfer breast augmentation:

Resorption of Fat: Not all transferred fat cells survive; some may be reabsorbed by the body. This can result in a partial loss of volume over time, requiring touch-up procedures.

Need for Multiple Sessions: Achieving the desired breast size and shape may require more than one fat transfer session.

Calcifications: Fat necrosis or the formation of calcifications (lumps) in the breast may occur, which can be detected on mammograms and require further evaluation.

Changes in Sensation: Some individuals may experience temporary or permanent changes in breast or nipple sensation, including numbness, tingling, or heightened sensitivity.

Scarring: While fat transfer involves smaller incisions than traditional breast augmentation, there will still be some scarring at the donor site (e.g., abdomen or thighs).

It’s crucial to consult with a qualified surgeon who specializes in fat transfer breast augmentation to discuss the specific risks of the procedure. This will help you make an informed decision and determine if it’s the right option for you.

Breast Reduction – Specific Risks and Complications

Scarring: Breast reduction surgery leaves scars, with the extent and visibility varying from person to person. Scarring is typically permanent but will fade over time.

Changes in Nipple Sensation: Temporary or permanent changes in nipple sensation, including numbness or heightened sensitivity, can occur.

Asymmetry: While the goal is to achieve symmetrical breasts, there can be some degree of asymmetry post-surgery.

Fat Necrosis: Areas of fatty tissue may harden or form lumps (fat necrosis) due to insufficient blood supply. These lumps may require surgical removal.

Breastfeeding Challenges: Breast reduction surgery can interfere with breastfeeding due to changes in the milk ducts or milk supply.

Changes in Breast Shape and Size: While the goal is to reduce breast size, there may be changes in shape and size that you didn’t anticipate.

It’s essential to have a thorough discussion with your surgeon about these risks and any specific concerns you may have before undergoing breast reduction surgery. Your surgeon will provide guidance on minimising risks and optimizing your surgical outcome.

Breast Lift – Specific Risks and Complications

Scarring: Breast lift surgery results in permanent scars. Their extent and visibility vary depending on factors like the surgical technique used and individual healing. While scars fade over time, they typically remain visible.

Asymmetry: Achieving perfect breast symmetry is challenging. Some degree of asymmetry may persist post-surgery, or new asymmetry could develop.

Changes in Nipple Sensation: Temporary or permanent changes in nipple sensation, including numbness or heightened sensitivity, can occur.

Breastfeeding Challenges: Breast lift surgery can affect the milk ducts and glands, potentially impacting breastfeeding.

Changes in Breast Shape and Size: While the primary goal is to lift and reshape the breasts, there may be changes in shape and size that you didn’t anticipate.

It’s essential to have a thorough discussion with your surgeon about these risks and any specific concerns you may have before undergoing a breast lift without implants. Your surgeon will provide guidance on minimising risks and optimising your surgical outcome.

Body Surgeries

Body Lift Surgery Melbourne – Risks and Complications

Like all surgical procedures, Body Lift surgery carries inherent risks and potential complications. It’s essential to be informed about these before proceeding with the surgery. Here are some common risks and complications associated with Body Lift Surgery:

Scarring: Body lift surgery results in permanent scars. The extent and visibility of scars depend on factors like surgical technique and individual healing. Scars typically fade over time but usually remain visible.

Infection: Infections at the surgical site can occur, leading to redness, swelling, pain, and, in some cases, the need for antibiotics or additional procedures.

Bleeding: Some bleeding during and after surgery is normal, but excessive bleeding may require further intervention, including surgical correction.

Anesthesia Risks: General anesthesia carries inherent risks, including allergic reactions or complications related to breathing and heart function.

Delayed Healing: Slow or poor wound healing can lead to complications or the need for additional treatments.

Numbness: Temporary or permanent numbness or changes in sensation at the surgical site can occur.

Fluid Accumulation (Seroma): Accumulation of fluid in the surgical area may require drainage to prevent complications.

Asymmetry: Achieving perfect body symmetry is challenging. Some degree of asymmetry may persist post-surgery, or new asymmetry could develop.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): Long periods of immobility after surgery can increase the risk of DVT, a condition where blood clots form in deep veins, typically in the legs.

Changes in Body Contour: While the primary goal is to create a more toned appearance, there may be changes in shape and size of body areas you didn’t anticipate.,

Long Recovery: Recovery from body lift surgery can be more extended compared to other cosmetic procedures. It’s crucial to follow your surgeon’s post-operative instructions diligently to achieve the best results and minimize complications.

Discuss these risks and any specific concerns with your surgeon during the consultation phase. They will provide guidance on minimising risks and optimising your surgical outcome.

Liposuction – Specific Risks and Complications

Below is a brief description of some possible complications specific to liposuction.

Fat Embolism
A rare but severe complication where dislodged fat particles enter the bloodstream and block blood flow to vital organs.

Thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of a vein due to blood clot formation can potentially lead to deep vein thrombosis.

Numbness
Either temporary or permanent numbness in the surgical site area may occur. Temporary nerve irritation is also possible.

Fat Embolism
It is important to stick to all postoperative instructions. Compressive garments are a vital aspect of your recovery period. Failure to adhere to these instructions can lead to complications such as; deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and even death.

Bruising
Hematomas (bruises) can occur when there is an increase in the amount of bleeding. It is important to make sure both you and your surgeon choose the correct type of liposuction. Your specific needs must be taken into account. The correct type of Liposuction can decrease the risk of post-treatment bleeding.

Contour irregularities
The most common cause of contour irregularities is a poor surgical technique. This can result in your skin looking uneven, bumpy, wavy or even wrinkly. Another cause is poor skin elasticity and unusual healing patterns. Unfortunately, these can be permanent. Damage beneath the skin from the cannula can also give the skin a permanent spot like appearance.

Internal puncture
It is rare that a cannula penetrates too deeply. However, without the right experience, aggressive treatments can puncture tissues. This can cause damage to internal organs. An Internal puncture may require emergency surgery, it can even lead to death.

Increased Risk of Complications
The risks of complications increase when the surgeon is working on larger surfaces of your body. They also increase if the surgeon is performing more than one procedure at the same time.

It’s important to note that the majority of liposuction procedures are performed without major complications. To minimise risks, patients should closely follow their surgeon’s post-operative instructions and communicate any concerns or complications during the recovery period.

Labiaplasty/Labia Reduction – Specific Risks and Complications

Infection: Infections at the surgical site are a risk, although they are relatively rare.

Scarring: Although Labiaplasty typically involves inconspicuous incisions, poor scarring can occur. Proper wound care can help minimize scarring.

Pain and Discomfort: Pain and discomfort are common after surgery and can be managed with prescribed pain medications.

Swelling: Swelling in the genital area is typical after Labiaplasty. It usually subsides over time.

Changes in Sensation: Alterations in sensation, including temporary or permanent numbness in the treated area, are possible due to nerve damage.

Unsatisfactory Aesthetic Outcome: The final result may not meet your expectations, as individual responses to surgery can vary.

Tissue Over-Resection: In some cases, excessive tissue removal may lead to discomfort or complications.

Chronic Dryness or Irritation: Changes in the labial tissue can sometimes lead to chronic dryness or irritation.

It’s essential to choose a qualified and experienced surgeon and have a thorough pre-operative consultation to discuss expectations and potential risks. Follow-up care, post-operative instructions, and regular check-ups are also crucial to minimise risks and ensure a successful recovery.

Face Surgeries

Face Surgery Risks and Complications

Anesthesia Risks: Like all surgical procedures, face surgery involves the use of anesthesia, which carries risks such as allergic reactions, breathing difficulties, or adverse reactions to anesthesia medications.

Bleeding: Postoperative bleeding is a risk, and in some cases, it may require further surgery to address.

Infection: Surgical sites can become infected, potentially leading to complications that may require additional treatment or surgery.

Nerve Damage: Some face surgeries, especially those involving the repositioning of facial nerves, carry a risk of nerve damage. This can lead to temporary or, in rare cases, permanent sensory or motor issues.

Change in Facial Sensation: Patients may experience temporary or permanent changes in facial sensation, including numbness or altered sensitivity in the surgical area.

Incomplete Symptom Relief: For medical face surgeries, the relief of symptoms may not be complete, and additional procedures or treatments might be necessary.

Change in Appearance: Cosmetic face surgery carries the risk of an unintended change in facial appearance, which may not align with the patient’s expectations.

Asymmetry: Achieving perfect facial symmetry can be challenging, and minor asymmetry may result from the surgery.

Hematoma or Seroma: Collections of blood (hematoma) or fluid (seroma) can occur at the surgical site and may require drainage.

Inflammatory Reactions: In some cases, patients may experience abnormal inflammatory reactions to surgical materials or implants, which can result in discomfort or complications.

Suture Complications: Issues related to sutures or incisions, such as spitting sutures, suture granulomas, or keloid formation, can occur.

Secondary Surgery: Some patients may require secondary surgeries or revisions to achieve the desired results.

It’s important to consult with an experienced surgeon, discuss your concerns and expectations, and carefully consider the risks associated with the specific face surgery you’re considering. Surgeons should provide thorough pre-operative and post-operative care instructions to minimise complications and optimise the outcome.

SMAS (Superficial Musculo-Aponeurotic System) Facelift – Risks and Complications

Bleeding: Surgical procedures involve incisions, and there’s a risk of bleeding during and after the surgery. Surgeons use techniques to minimize bleeding during the procedure, but post-operative bleeding can occur.

Infection: Any surgery carries a risk of infection, although this risk is generally low. Surgeons take precautions to reduce the risk of infection.

Nerve Damage: Damage to facial nerves is a rare but possible complication. It can lead to temporary or, in rare cases, permanent weakness or numbness in certain facial areas.

Hematoma: A hematoma is a collection of blood that can occur beneath the skin. It might require drainage if it’s significant.

Anesthesia Complications: Adverse reactions to anesthesia are rare but possible. Your anesthesiologist will carefully monitor you during the procedure to ensure your safety.

Asymmetry: Achieving perfect symmetry in any surgical procedure is challenging, and there might be slight asymmetries in the results.

Skin Irregularities: Occasionally, patients might develop irregularities in the skin texture after surgery.

Suture Complications: Problems with sutures or staples used to close incisions can occur, requiring additional procedures or adjustments.

Visible Scarring: While surgeons aim to make incisions discreet, some patients might experience more visible scars due to genetics or improper wound care.

Swelling and Bruising: These are common after surgery and usually subside within a few weeks.

It’s essential to discuss these risks and potential complications with your surgeon during the consultation. They will provide you with detailed information about the procedure, the specific risks you might face, and how they manage these risks to ensure a safe and successful outcome. Additionally, your adherence to post-operative instructions and careful wound care can significantly reduce the likelihood of complications.

Eyelid Surgery – Risks and Complications

Bleeding: As with any surgery, there’s a risk of bleeding during and after the procedure. Surgeons take measures to minimize intraoperative bleeding.

Infection: Infections are rare, but they can occur after surgery. Patients are typically prescribed antibiotics to mitigate this risk.

Swelling and Bruising: Swelling and bruising around the eyes are common and should subside within a few weeks.

Dry Eyes: Temporary or, in rare cases, permanent dry eye symptoms can occur. Artificial tears or other treatments can help manage this condition.

Scarring: While eyelid surgery aims for minimal scarring, some scarring is inevitable. Proper wound care can help minimize scarring.

Ectropion or Entropion: Ectropion is an outward rolling of the eyelid, while entropion is an inward rolling. These complications can affect the eye’s function and require additional surgery to correct.

Asymmetry: Perfect symmetry is challenging to achieve. There might be slight asymmetries in the results, although surgeons aim for a harmonious appearance.

Vision Changes: Temporary blurred or double vision might occur, but these usually resolve as the eyes heal.

Eyelid Lag: Sometimes, the lower eyelids might not close completely after surgery, leading to eyelid lag. This can affect eye lubrication and comfort.

Numbness or Sensitivity: Temporary or permanent changes in eyelid sensation are possible but rare.

Scarring on the Cornea: Rarely, scarring on the cornea might affect vision.

Anesthesia Complications: Adverse reactions to anesthesia can occur, although these are usually rare and closely monitored by the anesthesiologist.

Suboptimal Results: While surgeons aim for natural-looking results, individual healing and variations in anatomy can result in outcomes that differ from expectations.

It’s crucial to discuss these risks and potential complications with your surgeon during the consultation. They will provide you with detailed information about the procedure, specific risks, and how they manage these risks to ensure a safe and successful outcome. Your adherence to post-operative instructions is essential in reducing the likelihood of complications.

Chin Implant Surgery – Risks and Complications

Infection: While infections are rare, they can occur. Antibiotics are often prescribed to prevent or treat infections.

Bleeding: As with most surgeries, there’s a risk of bleeding during and after the procedure. Your surgeon will take measures to minimize intraoperative bleeding.

Scarring: Incisions are usually made inside the mouth or beneath the chin to minimize visible scarring, but some scarring is inevitable.

Numbness: Temporary or, in rare cases, permanent numbness around the chin and lower lip can occur.

Implant Issues: Implant displacement or shifting can happen. In such cases, revision surgery may be needed to reposition the implant.

Suboptimal Aesthetic Outcome: Sometimes, the final aesthetic outcome may differ from expectations. Your surgeon will discuss your goals and ensure realistic expectations.

Chin Ptosis: Chin ptosis is a condition where the chin appears to sag. It may require further surgery to correct.

Problems with Anesthesia: Adverse reactions to anesthesia can occur, though these are typically rare and closely monitored.

Chin Implant Incompatibility: In rare cases, the body might react adversely to the implant material, leading to complications.

It’s essential to thoroughly discuss these risks with your surgeon during the consultation. Your surgeon will provide you with detailed information about the procedure, specific risks, and how they manage these risks to ensure a safe and successful outcome. Adhering to post-operative instructions and attending follow-up appointments is crucial in reducing the likelihood of complications.

Nose Surgeries

Nose Procedures – Risks and Complications

Nose Surgery is a complex surgical process, and as such requires special attention during recovery.
Some of the risks and complications associated with Nose surgeries include:

Infection: Although rare, infections can occur after rhinoplasty. They are typically treated with antibiotics.

Bleeding: Post-operative bleeding is normal to some extent but excessive bleeding may require medical attention.

Scarring: Rhinoplasty often involves concealed incisions, but in some cases, visible scarring can occur.

Nasal Obstruction: Changes in the nasal structure can result in breathing difficulties, known as nasal obstruction.

Change in Sensation: Temporary or, in rare cases, permanent changes in sensation, including numbness, can affect the nose and surrounding areas.

Asymmetry: Achieving perfect symmetry is challenging, and some degree of asymmetry may persist after surgery.

Unsatisfactory Aesthetic Outcome: The final appearance may not meet the patient’s expectations, as individual responses to surgery can vary.

Over-Resection or Under-Resection: Removing too much or too little tissue can lead to an unnatural appearance or functional issues.

Chronic Dryness or Irritation: Changes in the nasal lining can sometimes lead to chronic dryness or irritation.

Septal Perforation: A hole in the septum (the cartilage that separates the nostrils) is a rare but serious complication.

Altered Nasal Breathing: Changes to the nasal structure may affect breathing and airflow.

Revision Surgery: In some cases, patients may require revision surgery to correct or improve the initial results.

Choosing a qualified and experienced surgeon, having a detailed pre-operative consultation, and discussing potential risks are essential steps in the rhinoplasty process. Follow-up care, post-operative instructions, and regular check-ups are crucial to minimise risks and ensure a successful recovery.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Surgery – Risks and Complications

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Surgery is a complex procedure that should be done only by a Specialist Surgeon experienced in the field of ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) surgery.

Surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be effective in alleviating the condition, but like all surgeries, it carries certain risks and potential complications. It’s important to understand these risks before considering OSA surgery. Here are the risks and complications associated with OSA surgery:

Anesthesia Risks: All surgeries involving general anesthesia carry inherent risks, including adverse reactions to medications, breathing difficulties, or even rare cases of anesthesia awareness (being awake during surgery).

Swelling and Pain: Swelling and pain are common after Obstructive Sleep Apnea Surgery.

Change in Voice: Some Obstructive Sleep Apnea Surgeries may affect the vocal cords or throat, leading to a temporary or, in rare cases, permanent change in voice or hoarseness.

Difficulty Swallowing: Swallowing difficulties, known as dysphagia, can occur after some Obstructive Sleep Apnea Surgeries due to swelling and changes in the throat anatomy.

Incomplete Symptom Relief: Surgery doesn’t guarantee complete symptom relief. Some patients may continue to experience Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) to a lesser extent.

Nasal and Palate Issues: Surgeries that target the nasal passages and palate can result in nasal congestion, a feeling of stuffiness, or palate-related issues like regurgitation or voice changes.

Regrowth of Tissues: In some surgeries, the tissues or structures that were treated may partially regrow, reducing the effectiveness of the procedure.

Failure to Cure Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): In some cases, surgery may not completely cure Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) or may only provide temporary relief.

Additional Surgery: Obstructive Sleep Apnea Surgery may necessitate additional procedures, revisions, or adjustments to optimize outcomes.

It’s essential to have a thorough discussion with your healthcare provider or surgeon about the potential risks and complications and outcomes of the specific OSA surgery being considered. OSA surgery is typically recommended when other treatments have not been effective or in cases of severe OSA. Patients should choose experienced healthcare providers and surgeons to minimise these risks and maximise the chances of a successful outcome.

Gender Affirmation Surgery

Gender Affirmation Surgery – Risks and Complications

Infection: Infections can occur at the surgical site, and your surgical team will take steps to minimize this risk. Timely antibiotic treatment is often effective.

Bleeding: There is a risk of bleeding during and after the surgery, which can sometimes necessitate additional surgical intervention.

Scarring: Surgery often involves incisions, leading to scarring. Skilled surgical techniques and post-operative care can help minimize scarring.

Anesthesia Complications: Reactions to anesthesia are possible, although they are generally rare and closely monitored.

Thrombosis and Embolism: Gender affirmation surgeries often require periods of immobility, which can increase the risk of blood clots. Medications and early mobility are used to mitigate this risk.

Wound Healing Issues: Delayed wound healing, including wound separation, can occur but is typically managed with wound care and sometimes surgical revisions.

Numbness: Temporary or, in rare cases, permanent numbness in the surgical areas can develop.

Implant or Device Issues: For surgeries involving implants (e.g., breast augmentation), complications may include implant shifting, rupture, or leaking.

Unsatisfactory Aesthetic Outcomes: There’s a possibility that the final aesthetic result may differ from your expectations due to variations in healing and anatomy. Your surgeon will help set realistic goals.

Chronic Pain: Some patients may experience chronic pain following surgery, which may require ongoing management.

Dissatisfaction with Results: Patient satisfaction with surgical outcomes can vary, and some individuals may require revision surgery or other procedures to achieve their desired results.

It’s important to have a detailed discussion with your surgical team about the specific procedures you’re considering, the associated risks, and how they manage these risks to ensure your safety and a successful outcome. Additionally, adhering to post-operative instructions and attending follow-up appointments are critical for minimising complications and achieving the best possible results.

Dr Craig Rubinstein
Dr Broughton Snell
Dr Stephen Kleid
Dr Gary Kode

Specialist Plastic Surgeon MED0001124843 Dr Craig Rubinstein

Dr Craig Rubinstein is a Specialist Plastic Surgeon based in Hawthorn East, Melbourne. With over 20 years of surgical experience especially in all areas of Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery, but particularly in breast surgery. These include Breast Augmentation and Breast Reduction as well as Breast Surgery Revision.

Furthermore, he believes that surgical customisation, precision planning and technical expertise help him to provide optimal surgical outcomes for his patients.

Specialist Plastic Surgeon MED0001190266 Dr Broughton Snell

Dr Broughton Snell is a Specialist Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon based in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. His training in Plastic Surgery took place in Australia and the United States of America (USA).

Dr Snell is a fully qualified specialist plastic surgeon having completed his Fellowship with the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Surgeon MED0001052799 Dr Stephen Kleid

Dr Stephen Kleid is an experienced Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Surgeon (Otolaryngologist) based in Melbourne with a passion for Septo-rhinoplasty, Septoplasty, as well as, a strong interest in Rhinoplasty Revision.

Dr Kleid trained at Melbourne University, then completed surgical training at various hospitals including Royal Melbourne, Royal Children’s, The Eye and Ear and St Vincents. He worked as a surgeon at the University of Florida Medical school for further experience.

Specialist Plastic Surgeon MED0001405964 Dr Gary Kode

Dr Gary Kode is a Specialist Plastic Surgeon, with experience in Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, as well as non-surgical treatments.

Dr Kode is a member of several organisations, including the Australian Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (ASAPS), The International Confederation for Plastic and Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, and he holds a Fellowship with the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

What to do next?

Our Patient Liaison Team can assist with any questions you may have when considering a procedure. You can send in an enquiry form below or call our Melbourne Clinic between 9 am – 5 pm Monday - Friday.

Disclaimer: Results depend on individual patient circumstances and can vary significantly. Results may also be impacted by a variety of factors including your lifestyle, weight, nutritional intake and overall health. Consult your Specialist Plastic Surgeon for details. This information is general in nature and is not intended to be medical advice nor does it constitute a doctor-patient relationship. Surgery risks and complications will be covered in detail during a consultation with your Surgeon.

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