Does Medicare cover Gender Affirmation Surgery?

Coco Ruby Plastic Surgery - Gender Reassignment Surgery Melbourne Image Illustration

Can I claim my Gender Affirmation Surgery or Gender Confirmation Surgery on Medicare & my Health Fund?

An increasing number of people are seeking Gender Affirmation or Confirmation Surgery.

So, does Medicare cover gender affirmation surgery? As the popularity of this surgery grows, many patients often have inquiries regarding the financing of such an operation. As with other surgical procedures, certain specific rules must be met in order for your insurance provider to partially or fully cover the costs.

For more information, you can download our Medicare and Health Insurance Guide

A Guide to Medicare and Health Insurance

Medicare and Health Insurance Guide


Will Private Health Insurance (PHI) cover Gender Affirmation or Gender Confirmation surgery?

In order to request cover for gender surgery from your private insurance company, you must first be eligible for a Medicare item number.

We recommend you consult with your health fund in order to get the correct information regarding;

  • The conditions under which you can apply for cover
  • The level and extent of your health fund cover required

Furthermore, in certain cases, some patients choose to apply for Early Release of Super Funds to help cover surgery costs. However, this process requires compliance with certain government ATO rules. Even then, there is no guarantee that your funds will be released. This is especially true in cases when the surgery is for purely aesthetic reasons.

Gender Dysphoria

Gender dysphoria refers to the condition of feeling that your psychological and emotional identity does not match with your birth gender. Whilst, it can cause serious distress, anxiety and emotional pain, gender dysphoria is not a mental illness.

However, the stress that builds as a result of feeling different, homophobic or transphobic attitudes from others and trauma for bullies or alienation from family and friends can all contribute to a decline in mental health. If you believe that there is an effect on your mental health, know that you are not alone. There are many resources out there to help you.

In 2007 Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society published ‘Tranznation: A report on the health and well being of sex and gender diverse (Trans) gender people in Australia and New Zealand’ the publication shared the following statistics;

  • A large majority of trans people (87.4 %) had experienced at least one form of stigma or discrimination
  • Over half (53.4%) reported verbal abuse
  • One third (33.6%) had received threats of violence or intimidation
  • Nearly one in five (18.6%) had experienced a physical attack or other kinds of violence

Transgender people are also likely to experience bullying in schools, workplaces and other social situations.

Coco Ruby Plastic Surgery - Gender Reassignment Surgery in Melbourne Hormonal Therapy Checklist Image

Reasons for wanting to have Gender Affirmation/Confirmation surgery

Whilst Transgender people do not need medical intervention to have valid identities many choose to transition. This can involve Social and/or Medical transitioning.

  • Social transitioning: refers to going by different pronouns, changing one’s style, adopting a new name, etc., to affirm one’s gender
  • Medical Transitioning involves taking hormones and/or surgically removing or modifying genitals and reproductive organs. This is what we refer to when talking about Gender Affirmation or confirmation surgery

Gender Confirmation surgery is one of the most complex operations in the field of plastic surgery. It not only changes the complete external physical appearance of the individual but their overall identity as well.

Coco Ruby Plastic Surgery - Gender Reassignment Surgery Consent Contract Image

How Do I Qualify for the Medicare Rebate?

To be eligible for rebates for gender affirmation surgery, you must meet certain Medicare criteria.

The Australian Government uses a numbered list of services through the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) to determine which procedures are subject to rebates.

BREAST, total mastectomy falls under the third category of procedures – therapeutic procedures, and a subgroup of General Surgery.

FREE GRAFTING (full thickness), to 1 defect, excluding grafts for male pattern baldness falls under the third category of procedures – therapeutic procedures, and a subgroup of Plastic And Reconstructive Surgery.

Medicare Item Numbers for Gender Surgery

MBS Item Number for total mastectomy (FTM breast removal) surgery is:

  • 31519 – Breast, total mastectomy

MBS Item Number for free grafting surgery is:

  • 45451 –  Free Grafting (full thickness)

MBS Item Number for Tracheal Shave – Adam’s Apple Reduction

  • 41879 – Tracheoplasty

There is NO medicare rebate for purely Cosmetic Breast Surgery – like Chest Augmentation with Implants or Breast Augmentation.

Will Medicare Cover Gender Affirmation/Confirmation surgery for medical reasons?

Medicare and PHI function on the basic principle that all procedures of an aesthetic nature are not eligible for cover. However, if your condition affects your normal daily functioning, then there is a possibility that your insurance provider will, to some extent, help finance your procedure. The procedure must be medically justified and compliant with Medicare criteria. In every other case, neither Medicare nor private health insurance will not cover the costs.

There are many types of gender affirmation surgeries – often split into “top surgeries” and “bottom surgeries,” depending on the area of the body.

BOTTOM surgeries.

  • There are also multiple types of bottom surgeries available for individuals who wish to change their genital appearance.
    • For MTF or MTN, vaginoplasty and penile inversion techniques are used to construct a sensate vagina.
    • For FTM or FTN, phalloplasty and metoidioplasty are surgeries used to construct a neopenis. Scrotoplasty and testicular implants may also be used to construct a scrotum.

TOP surgeries.

  • There are multiple types of top surgeries.
    • For FTM or FTN, top surgery involves removing breast tissue and flattening the chest.
    • While, for MTF or MTN, it involves using breast augmentation to increase the size of the breasts.

Medicare may also cover; Hormone therapy and counselling. While, additional procedures, such as laser hair removal, tracheal shave surgery, and facial feminization surgery, may also be performed as part of your gender affirmation, these surgeries are generally considered cosmetic in nature, are normally not covered by Medicare.

Research to find out if Medicare and the MBS Covers Your Gender Affirmation/Confirmation Surgery Procedure

  • You can download a complete MBS benefits scheme to find out more about the categorization, codes, and conditions for each procedure.
  • If you are looking for a specific procedure, you can use a built-in search function to browse through the categorization faster.
  • If the desired procedure is not listed in the MBS categorization, Medicare is not offering reimbursement for that specific surgery.

Why is Medicare for  Gender Affirmation/Confirmation Surgery confusing a lot of patients seeking Plastic or Cosmetic Surgery?

Each plastic surgery is strictly individualized and modified for each patient. Gender affirmation/confirmation is more of a process because the gender affirmation process encompasses a whole range of procedures that will vary from patient to patient.

Accordingly, all patients are different and come up with different ideas and qualifications for the procedure, they have different wishes and expectations which sometimes do not coincide with real possibilities.

In these gender operations (of course there are always exceptions), it is not a desire to improve the physical appearance but the primordial need to harmonize the physical and spiritual, the unification of the body with the feeling of belonging.

If your condition affects your health and psychological condition to such an extent, provided that all other conditions are met, there is a possibility that Medicare will cover a certain part of your costs, especially if you have a referral.

Life-Changing Effects of Gender Affirmation/Confirmation Surgery

Gender surgery, more precisely the whole gender affirmation procedure, is the most extreme set of medical procedures that includes a whole series of psychological preparation of the patient, hormone therapy, and ultimately a series of plastic surgeries that completely change a person’s biological characteristics.

The number of plastic surgeries will vary, depending not only on the physical predispositions of each patient and the results of hormone therapy but also the patient’s wishes.

Except for extreme changes in appearance that result in increased self-confidence and feelings of satisfaction, the biggest changes a patient experiences are psychological ones.

Before any operation that drastically changes the physical appearance, it is important that you have the psychological help of a doctor. This is especially true in gender affirmation surgery, it can make the whole transition and the reaction of society after the transition easier on the patient.

Medicare Rebates are subject to change and review

MBS Item codes can change or be eliminated from the Medicare rebate schedule. If your surgery is currently eligible for a Medicare rebate, it may be best to perform your procedure sooner rather than later.

Top Tips for dealing with Medicare regarding your claim

  • Known the fundamental difference between cosmetic and plastic surgery. Plastic surgery (also known as plastic reconstructive surgery) is subject to rebates while aesthetics are not.
  • If your request for rebates is approved, it is very unlikely that you will receive full financial compensation.
  • If you operate solely for aesthetic reasons, your request for rebates will undoubtedly be denied.
  • Gender affirmation surgery is extremely expensive and can reach tens of thousands of dollars. So, if you do not have the financial means for such an outlay, ask about the possibilities of covering the costs/part of the costs.
  • Medicare and PHI differ in both terms and scope of coverage. So, ask your private health fund directly about the scope of coverage.
  • When submitting the request, include as much detail as possible. Thoroughly, explain your problem and support the request with medical records, findings and photographs.
  • Enclosing a doctor’s referral with your request will improve your chances of reimbursement, even if it is only a partial one.

Further Tips For Claiming Your Gender Affirmation/Confirmation Surgery

  • Gender affirmation surgery is not for everyone. Some patients choose to live with gender dysphoria or just undergo hormone therapy without ever choosing to undergo gender affirmation surgery.
  • After gender affirmation, it is impossible to go back to the way you were before, even if you arent happy with the outcome. Therefore, it is vital that before making a final decision you take time to think, counsel, and gather information.
  • Ask your doctor to show you photos of patients before and after surgery. This will give you an idea of what to expect from surgery.
  • The process of gender affirmation is time-consuming and largely depends on your mental state. So don’t expect to start and complete the transformation process in a year. Gender surgery is just the last step. Before that, you will undergo;
    • A comprehensive psychological analysis, to diagnose Gender Dysphoria.
    • Then, you will need to undergo a minimum of one year of hormone therapy.
    • After which you will be able to undergo a series of gender affirmation surgery.
  • Unfortunately, not all people are open enough and willing to accept a person who has chosen to change their gender. Prepare yourself mentally for this and express your condition and wishes to your loved ones early enough. You will need the support of those close to you.


When phoning Medicare and Health funds

  • The procedure for requesting the return of the rebate is usually lengthy and quite stressful.
  • Before each application;
    • Know your stuff
    • Visit the Medicare website
    • And, make as many phone calls as you need to ensure you have all the information you need to apply.
  • We recommend that you communicate with agents electronically so that you have a written record of each information exchange. However, if it is easier for you to communicate by telephone or do not use email, request written confirmation from the agent for each conversation.
  • Organisation is key. Keep your papers in order, preferably in chronological order. This includes; findings, conversations, requests, and official correspondence.
  • Unfortunately, CocoRuby doesn’t provide assistance with Medicare or Health Fund processing. This is solely the patient’s responsibility. However, we do list the Medicare code(s) on your Quote and on your Invoice(s). So, if you are eligible for a Medicare rebate code or health fund rebate, this can help you when it comes to submitting your paperwork.

More Information about Your Procedure

See the Gender Affirmation Surgery GALLERY of Patient Photos

Read the Gender Affirmation Surgery – PROCEDURE PAGE

You can Download  Free Procedure Guides on your chosen surgery.

Also, our FAQs page might help you find out more about the procedure you are interested in, and other patients’ experience.

For more information about pricing and payment methods, please visit our page on Surgery Payment options.

You can also talk to our Patient Care Team from 8 am – 6 pm Monday to Friday on 1300 264 811

Phone 1300 264 811 or send us an enquiry form, below.

*Disclaimer: Individual results can vary significantly from patient to patient. The information we provide is general.  For further information on what to expect for your preferred procedures, arrange to see one of our Specialist Plastic Surgeons for a full-history and surgical consultation. Read further information about surgical outcome variability on our Disclaimer page.

Medical References – Sources;

  3. Best Transgender Surgeon in Sydney
  5. Find out more about a Gender Affirmation Surgery Melbourne by Dr Patrick Briggs
Last updated: 14/05/2022
Author profile image
Michelle Staughton
Michelle Staughton - Patient Liaison Manager at Coco Ruby Plastic Surgery in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. As a past patient, Michelle has insider knowledge of the journey our patients embark on. A busy mother of 3, and independent business owner, Michelle appreciates the organisation required to get things done in today’s hectic life. Her role as Patient Experience Manager Michelle is a great guide for your plastic surgery journey.

Coco Ruby’s Specialist Plastic and ENT Surgeons

With a wealth of experience and training, our Specialist Plastic Surgeons are dedicated to best practice patient care and education, customising Breast Enlargement Surgery for each and every patient to best meet their needs and desired surgical outcomes.

coco ruby specialist plastic surgeons 

What to do next?

Our Patient Liaison Team can assist with any questions you may have when considering a procedure. You can send in an enquiry form below or call our Melbourne Clinic between 9 am – 5 pm Monday to Friday.

Phone 1300 264 811, Email us: or Book a FREE 15-minute Phone Chat with our Patient Liaison Manager or a Virtual Consultation with a Surgeon.

Disclaimer: Results depend on individual patient circumstances and can vary significantly. Results may also be impacted by a variety of factors including your lifestyle, weight, nutritional intake and overall health. Consult your Specialist Plastic Surgeon for details. This information is general in nature and is not intended to be medical advice nor does it constitute a doctor-patient relationship. Surgery risks and complications will be covered in detail during a consultation with your Surgeon.